# Mathematics

### FRACTIONS

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.A.1
Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

• Better Dirt, Better Lives : Begin with playing the Fish Lake game. A video of the section on crop rotation may be used by schools that don’t have Fish Lake installed. Give a presentation (included) on crop rotation. Watch a video on “What is one-half” and end the lesson with a presentation (included) on whether one-half is fair.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.A.2 Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2

• Using Visual Models To Compare Fractions – comparing fractions with different numerators and denominators, with the context of a story from Ojibwe history. They create their own problems using visual models to compare fractions. Students discuss classmates’ problems. The lesson culminates with a video on visualization as a problem-solving strategy.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.B.3.A – Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.B.3.D – Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

• Adding fractions with like denominators – This lesson plan will explore how students can add fractions with like denominators to determine the sum of fractions. It incorporates two instructional videos, an editable presentation and educational game that can be used to practice/reinforce the concept with assessment data.
• Subtracting fractions with like denominators – After this lesson, students will know how to solve multi–step word problems using addition and subtraction of fractions with like (common) denominators. After watching the video, students will login to “Aztech: The Story Begins” on a device with the website or application. Students will be faced with a fractions problem in Level 1 which uses a calendar to find the fraction of days students did homework. The game character points out that 15/31 may not be “all the time” but it is still more than half. Throughout the game, students will be presented with AzTech history.
• Using Visual Models To Compare Fractions – comparing fractions with different numerators and denominators, with the context of a story from Ojibwe history. They create their own problems using visual models to compare fractions. Students discuss classmates’ problems. The lesson culminates with a video on visualization as a problem-solving strategy.
• When a fraction equals 1 – This lesson plan will build upon the already introduced concepts and key terms of fractions in our “Introducing Fractions” lesson plan. Students will learn that a fraction N/N =1 and be able to solve problems with fractions equal to 1 in various contexts, including number lines, time and pizza. This is the bilingual version of the lesson above that includes resources in English and Spanish – Fractions Equal to 1 (Bilingual English & Spanish).

### DIVISION

CCSS.MATH.Content.4.NBT.B.6– Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

• Introducing Division – This lesson plan introduces the concepts and vocabulary of division and provides students the opportunities to practice both recognition and recall of division facts.
• Division and English/ Language Arts – This is a fun lesson where students practice division, combined with Ojibwe history and then complete a creative writing assignment.
• Dividing 3-Digit Dividends – This lesson will build upon the already introduced concepts and vocabulary of division in our “Introducing Division” lesson. Students will learn and be able to practice dividing 3 digit dividends by 1 digit divisors through a short review, activity, and game play.
• Build Your Own Division Problem – This lesson plan will build upon the introduction to division with 3-digit dividends from the “Dividing 3-Digit Dividends” lesson. Students will be able to continue practicing dividing 3-digit dividends by 1-digit divisors through a short review, activity where students build their own division problems, and game play.
• Fill in the Blank: 3 Digit Dividends – This lesson plan will have students reinforce the previously presented concept of long division of 3 digit dividends by 1 digit divisors (Dividing 3-Digit Dividends and Build Your Own Division Problem) through a short review, an animated video, a fill in the blank division word problem activity, and game play.
• Breaking down division with remainders – This lesson plan will explore how students interpret remainders in the context of a problem. They will learn how to divide and have a number leftover. Students will be using the concept of division and remainders.
• Learn 4 math facts at once with Google slides. Start with a video as an ice breaker. Then, students read or listen to a presentation explaining how each math fact is actually four. Students complete an activity where they create their own math facts slides. A recommended video explains features of Google slides. Students complete the lesson playing Making Camp Dakota, solving word problems using division.

### ESTIMATION

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NBT.B.5 – Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.OA.A.3 – Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operation … Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

### PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES

CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP4 Model with mathematics.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

• In Problem-solving Two Ways , students learn about and practice the two strategies of building a model and visualization. The lesson above has a companion lesson for English Learners. Problem-solving Two Ways (Bilingual English & Spanish) is the same lesson from above but provides the resources, videos and Google Slides, in English and Spanish.
• Problem-solving with Pigs teaches two more problem-solving strategies, using operations keywords and starting at the end to see what a problem is really asking. It is part of a cross-curricular lesson that includes learning about how pigs are raised.

## English/ Language Arts

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.4.5.B – Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.L.5.5.B – Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.

• Introducing Idioms – This lesson plan helps students recognize and understand idioms and what they are through different examples.
• Animal Idioms – This idioms lesson for Grades 3-4 begins with a presentation, popular song about idioms, a list of animal idioms, two video games, and an idioms matching activity. Also enclosed is a book list for Grades 1-4 about idioms.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

• Cattails – Students will listen to or read a slide presentation. They will read an informational passage on cattails, write a summary and add new vocabulary words to their personal dictionary. The lesson ends with playing a game that teaches how medicinal herbs were used by indigenous people.
• Scrambled States: Ag in Language Arts – Teachers read The Scrambled States of America book, or have students read book or watch video. Students select a state from National Ag in the Classroom site and take notes on their state, including new vocabulary. Students read a book related to their state – link to a list is provided. Students complete a notes page and then use this page to write an informational essay.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

• Scrambled States: Ag in Language Arts – Teachers read The Scrambled States of America book, or have students read book or watch video. Students select a state from National Ag in the Classroom site and take notes on their state, including new vocabulary. Students read a book related to their state – link to a list is provided. Students complete a notes page and then use this page to write an informational essay.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.4.3 – Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

## Social Studies

Minnesota History Substrand 2, Standard 3. Historical events have multiple causes and can lead to varied and unintended outcomes.

Minnesota State Standard – History Sub-strand 4, Standard 15 “North America was populated by indigenous nations that had developed a wide range of social structures, political systems, and economic activities, and whose expansive trade networks extended across the continent.”

• Trade for a Wigwam – Students will watch two brief videos, one on building a wigwam and one on trading between tribes. They then trade in the points they have earned for items for their wigwam.
• Division and English/ Language Arts – This is a fun lesson where students practice division, combined with Ojibwe history and then complete a creative writing assignment.

ND H.3-5.3, & ND H.3-5.9 Describe North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings. Describe how individuals and groups contributed to North Dakota.

• Introduction to Lakota/Dakota Oral Histories & Storytelling Students watch a video with an elder telling a story in Lakota. Students write their guesses as to the meaning of the video and are then read the story in English. The teacher gives a short presentation on of oral history as used by the Lakota/Dakota. Students play a game with stories from Dakota or Lakota culture. Students present their own examples of oral history in writing or orally. Assessment is in oral or written presentation and via data reports on answers in Making Camp Lakota or Dakota.