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Reflections on Ojibwe Migration

by Janna Jensen and AnnMaria De Mars

📖 Standard

5.NF.B.4   Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.

D2.His.13.3-5  Use information about a historical source, including the maker, date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose to judge the extent to which the source is useful for studying a particular topic.

⏰ Time

60 minutes

📲 Technology Required

Students need access to a computer with web browser.

📃 Summary

This lesson begins with a storyboard on the route and major events of the Ojibwe migration. Students then play the Forgotten Trail game, followed by watching a video on map reading. As a group, students reflect on the challenges of the Ojibwe migration, compute the distance for just one segment and convert the distance from miles to kilometers.

📚Lesson

Storyboard on the Ojibwe Migration

Begin with this story board on the route and major events of the Ojibwe migration. We recommend having students read each section of the story as it advances. Alternatively, the teacher may read it to the class or students can read it to themselves either on devices in the classroom or at home.

Watch a video on how to find the mean

Warning: bad singing ahead. This short video tells how to find the mean – in song.

Play the Forgotten Trail Game

Map from Forgotten Trail

Students should play the game at least through the first level. The game begins with a middle school class learning about the Ojibwe migration. Students will solve math problems related to the average number of miles walked per day and fraction of distance covered.

Watch a video on using scales in maps

This video is 7 minutes and covers what is a scale, how to use one and that different maps have different scales. If you feel your students are already familiar with this information, you may skip this video. In the days of Google maps and GPS we have found students often are not as familiar with this information as you might assume.

Presentation on Reflections on the Ojibwe Migration

In this Google slides presentation, students are asked to reflect on the Ojibwe migration. What would it have taken to survive such a journey? They use their map skills to estimate the distance of one leg of the journey, in both kilometers and miles.

Presentation is also available as a PowerPoint.

Synonyms Video

Now that students have seen synonyms as words for the same thing and miles and kilometers as measures for the same distance, finish up with this short (less than 2 minutes) video on synonyms.

Assessment

Slides 14, 18 and 21 can be printed out for students to answer individually, or can be answered as a group in class. Data are available on activities completed and math problems answered in the Forgotten Trail reports. For more information, check out our reports page.

Multiplication Review and Red River Carts

📖Standards

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.A.4 – Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers.

NCSS theme – The study of people, places, and environments enables us to understand the relationship between human populations and the physical world. 

Minnesota State Standard – History Sub-strand 4, Standard 15 “North America was populated by indigenous nations that had developed a wide range of social structures, political systems, and economic activities, and whose expansive trade networks extended across the continent.”

⏰ Time

20 minutes

📲 Technology required

Internet connection on a PC or Chromebook laptop, tablet, or phone.

📃 Summary

Students watch a video on the importance of the Red River cart in expanding trade. The teacher presents (or students may read) a presentation discussing Red River carts followed by two related word problems. The lesson concludes with students playing Making Camp Premium, reinforcing multiplication facts and the Ojibwe history lesson learned.

📚 Lesson

Watch Red River Cart history video

Presentation on Red River Carts and multiplication

Use this Google slides presentation in-class or assigned online to review a little on the Red River cart and then solve two math problems involving carts and horses. In the first activity, the students drag the correct number of wheels to show 5 groups of 3 and then 3 groups of 5, both correct answers to the question. In the second problem, students drag 4 groups of 6 horses to solve the word problem.

Play a game

Students play Making Camp Premium (instructions on which activities are included in the slides presentation).

Wigwam from Making Camp Premium with items purchased with points

Assessment

Making Camp Premium offers Data and Reports for teachers to access to view students playing time and the number of items answered correctly addressing each standard taught in the game.

Ojibwe Clans and Migration

📖STANDARDS

NCSS theme – The study of people, places, and environments enables us to understand the relationship between human populations and the physical world. 

Minnesota State Standard – History Sub-strand 4, Standard 15 “North America was populated by indigenous nations that had developed a wide range of social structures, political systems, and economic activities, and whose expansive trade networks extended across the continent.”

⏰ Time

40 minutes

📲 Technology needed

Internet connection on a PC or Chromebook laptop, tablet, or phone.

📃 Summary

This Ojibwe clan lesson for Grade 3 is focused on Ojibwe culture. Students learn where people and places are located and why they are there. They will become familiar with the causes, patterns and effects of Ojibwe settlement and migration. They will learn of the different population centers in Ojibwe society and investigate the impact of human activities on the environment. 

📚 Lesson

The downloadable Google Slides presentation is available here. This has a digestible summary of the Ojibwe migration, and why and how it happened. The Ojibwe clans are introduced as well as the new lifestyles that the Ojibwe adopted after they migrated to the Great Lakes area and Ontario, Canada.

Game

Making Camp Premium can reinforce clans and culture studies using the Life section.

  1. Select the LIFE button from the main choice screen.
  2. From the LIFE choices, click on the box in the middle of the bottom row, the one with the four people, and watch the video about Ojibwe social structure. Answer the questions that follow the video. 
  3. Next, select the box on the bottom right. Watch the overview video on clans and totems. Answer the questions.
  4. Students can also click on each individual clan totem icon to learn more about each Ojibwe clan and answer a question about each of them to earn points.
  5. Return to the wigwam and trade with the points earned in this lesson.
Choices page for Ojibwe history in Making Camp

Alternatively, students may also play Forgotten Trail, which is an adventure game that homes in on the Ojibwe migration. Two kids in the game retrace the Ojibwe migration on their own and learn more about Ojibwe history along the way.

Assessment

Teachers will be able to view student reports for Making Camp Premium to view how many modules students completed in the LIFE section and their scores for each one.

10-Minute Multiplication Practice with Ojibwe History

📖Standards

CCSS. Math 3OA.A.4 Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. 

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.C.7– Fluently multiply and divide within 100

NCSS The study of people, places, and environments enables us to understand the relationship between human populations and the physical world. 

⏰Time Required

10 minutes

📲Technology Required

Computer/tablet with internet access for reporting student assessment data from Making Camp.

📃Summary

Ojibwe History Integrated with Math If your students are like most people, you’re having a hard time getting them to focus. Each of these three activities only takes a few minutes and teaches Native American history or multiplication. These 10-minute lessons can be done as stand-alone activities at the beginning or end of a class to raise student engagement, or the three in this unit can be combined for a single 30-45 minute lesson.

📚Lesson

Activity 1

Matching Multiplication

Step 1: Have students open Making Camp Premium. If you need more detailed instructions on how to access Making Camp Premium, student usernames and logging in, please go to this lesson plan

Step 2: If students are playing the game for the very first time, they will watch the two introductory videos that talk about Native Americans and how to play the game (5 minutes). Then you will see the Making Camp choice screen.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is IMG_0560-e1612229163785-1024x707.png

Step 3: Have students click the NUMBERS box to view the six math challenges. You can press the round, green button at the bottom left with white squares to return to the choice screen at any time.

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Step 4: Have students click on the top left box (with cards) to play a memory game. In this game, you match multiplication problems with their answers. You may assign this activity for 5 minutes of multiplication drills.

Activity 2

The Multiplication Dog

Step 1: Have students click on the icon with the dog. 

  • This lesson opens with a paragraph explaining that some tribes used dogs to haul heavy loads, using a type of sled called a travois. The player then has the opportunity to earn a dog and items for their dog in the game by answering multiplication problems. The game resets when it is finished, and also takes about 5 minutes.

Activity 3

Reaping the Rewards of Math Practice at the Wigwam 

The player should now have enough points to get a wigwam and at least two items to supply their wigwam. 

Step 1: Click on the wigwam icon on the bottom left. This will play a video on how a wigwam was built, followed by a second video that briefly discusses that trading existed between and within tribes long before the settlers came.

Step 2: The player then has an option to trade points for items for their wigwam.

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Clicking on the wigwam in the lower left corner will bring the player to their wigwam. Purchased items appear here for decoration and interaction. 

  • Clicking on an item brings up a text box with information on how that item was used or obtained by the Ojibwe people.
  • Some items also perform actions when clicked. For example, the parfleche opens to show pemmican inside; when clicked, the dog walks across the wigwam.
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Assessment

Making Camp Premium offers Data and Reports for teachers to access after students are finished playing. 

State Standards

Minnesota History Substrand 2, Standard 3. Historical events have multiple causes and can lead to varied and unintended outcomes.

Making Camp – 10 minute history

📖Standards

Minnesota History Substrand 2, Standard 3. Historical events have multiple causes and can lead to varied and unintended outcomes.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.A.4-Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.C.7– Fluently multiply and divide within 100

Time

10 Minutes
These 10-minute lessons can be done as stand-alone activities at the beginning or end of a class to raise student engagement, or the three in this unit can be combined for a single 30-45 minute lesson.

📲Technology Required

Device with web-browser – Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer, phone or tablet

📃Summary

Ojibwe History Integrated with Math + History = Making Camp

That’s Making Camp in a nutshell, um, equation. If your students are like most people, you’re having a hard time getting them to focus. That’s why we’ve created short lessons for you. Each of these only takes about 10 minutes, teaches Ojibwe (Native American) history , multiplication or division. You can do these at the beginning or end of class as a warm-up, as an assignment for those students who finish early.

As the game introduction says …. let’s get started on Making Camp.

📚Lesson Plan

1. Download or follow the link to get started on Making Camp!

The game can be downloaded for any Apple or Android phone or tablet. It can also be played online. The links you need will be in the game pages for your device. You will have received the password to access this page in the training you attended. To access the games for your device, click the appropriate link below. These pages are password protected, but the password you received will work on all three pages. 

If you have forgotten your password, email growingmath@7generationgames.com, let us know the name of your school and mention in the email you forgot your password.

2. Students will need a username and password

We strongly recommend you assign the username and password rather than having students assign their own.

Watch the two introductory videos that explain about the Ojibwe migration and how to play the game. This will bring you to the choice screen.

4 Choices - Numbers Life Random Words

Click on the NUMBERS option which will bring up the screen below.

MATCHING MULTIPLICATION

  • Click on the top left box (with cards) to play a memory game, matching multiplication problems with their answers.

The Multiplication Dog

  • This lesson opens with a paragraph explaining that some tribes used dogs to haul heavy loads, using a type of sled called a travois. The player then has the opportunity to earn a dog and items for their dog by answering multiplication problems.

Assessment

Remember that you can always see your students’ performance on the problems in Making Camp Premium by accessing the reports page. You will need to enter the password you received during training.

That’s it. That’s your ten minutes of learning social studies and multiplication. Next post in this series: Trade for a wigwam

State Standards

Minnesota Math Standard 3.2.2.2 – Use multiplication and division basic facts to represent a given problem situation using a number sentence. Use number sense and multiplication and division basic facts to find values for the unknowns that make the number sentences true.

Minnesota Math Standard 4.1.1.1 – Demonstrate fluency with multiplication and division facts.

Trade for a Wigwam

📖Standard

Minnesota State Standard – History Sub-strand 4, Standard 15 “North America was populated by indigenous nations that had developed a wide range of social structures, political systems, and economic activities, and whose expansive trade networks extended across the continent.”

Time

10 Minutes

These 10-minute lessons can be done as stand-alone activities at the beginning or end of a class to raise student engagement, or the three in this unit can be combined for a single 30-45 minute lesson.

📲Technology Required

Device with web-browser – Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer, phone or tablet

📃Summary

Today we are focused on the Ojibwe history part of Making Camp. As one of our very favorite middle school history teachers said,

History is more than names and dates. It’s how people lived, the things they used.

– Jose Gonzalez, Social Studies Teacher, Gompers Middle School, Los Angeles

Students will watch two brief videos, one on building a wigwam and one on trading between tribes. They then trade in the points they have earned for items for their wigwam. Clicking on each item gives information on how that item was used by the Ojibwe. If you did the previous ten-minute lesson, your students already have points. If not, they’ll need to earn some by playing Making Camp mini-games (just click on anyone of the choices on the main screen).

📚Lesson Plan

1. Click on the wigwam icon to watch two videos

Table of items to trade in wigwam with Making Camp Ojibwe

If you have been following along in order, the player now has enough points to get a wigwam and at least two items to supply their wigwam. 

NOTE: If the player does not have at least 1 point to trade, the wigwam video will not play and instead, he/she will be told that at least one point is needed to trade for a wigwam.

If the player does not have at least 3 points to trade (1 for the wigwam, plus two more) after the wigwam building video, h/she will be told that at least two points are needed for trading.

The first time a player clicks on the wigwam icon the on the bottom left of the screen it will play a video on how a wigwam was built. This will be followed by a second video that briefly discusses that trading existed between and within tribes long before the settlers came. The player then has an option to trade points for items for the wigwam.

2. Click on the inside of the wigwam image in the bottom right corner to bring the player to the wigwam where items purchased can be moved to decorate or interact. 

Clicking on an item will bring up a text box with information on how that item was used or obtained by the Ojibwe people.

Some items also perform actions when clicked. For example, the parfleche opens to show pemmican inside, the dog walks across the wigwam.

Go to the next lesson in this series, Rabbit Stew & Multiplication

Rabbit Stew & Multiplication

Why 10-minute math and history lessons?

Student on bed with pillow over her head

Why bite-size lessons?

  1. Well, if your children are like ours, they can get tired of learning on line, tired of being at home and difficult to motivate. When they get in those moods, we’ve found it helpful to break learning down into a series of smaller bites.
  2. Sometimes your lesson plan ends sooner than expected and you have a few minutes to fill.

Standards

Minnesota History Substrand 2, Standard 3. Historical events have multiple causes and can lead to varied and unintended outcomes.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.A.4-Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.C.7– Fluently multiply and divide within 100

Time

10 Minutes

Technology Required

Device with web-browser – Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer, phone or tablet

Summary

Students learn about what foods the Ojibwe people ate and how their diet changed when they were forced on to the reservation. They play a multiplication tic-tac-toe to snare rabbits and spend the points earned in the game to outfit their wigwam.

Lesson Plan

1. Watch a one-minute video on rabbit stew

Narrated by Deb Gourneau, of Turtle Mountain, this video explains the importance of rabbit stew in helping people survive when food was scarce.

2. Play Rabbit Tic-Tac-Toe in Making Camp Premium

Remember, clicking on the link with the boxes in the bottom left corner will always take you to the choices page.

  • Click on the box with the rabbit to play a tic-tac-toe game in Making Camp. Each correct multiplication problem snares a rabbit. Incorrect problems leave an empty snare.  
  • When you win this game, there will be an arrow to go back to the numbers page.

3. Play a Matching Game to earn more points

Click on the box with the buffalo to match multiplication problems with their answers.

4. Learn what else was part of the Ojibwe diet

Now that you have 4 more points, go back to the wigwam and if you have not already traded for these, select the fish, deer hide or parfleche to see what else the Ojibwe would eat. Click on each of these items in your wigwam to learn more about it.

Making Camp Premium

Assessment

Remember that you can always see your students’ performance on the problems in Making Camp Premium by accessing the reports page. You will need to enter the password you received during training.

State Standards

Minnesota Math Standard 3.2.2.2 – Use multiplication and division basic facts to represent a given problem situation using a number sentence. Use number sense and multiplication and division basic facts to find values for the unknowns that make the number sentences true.

Minnesota Math Standard 4.1.1.1 – Demonstrate fluency with multiplication and division facts.

Introducing Fractions

Standards

CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.1 Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NF.B.3 Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b.

Summary

The student will learn the definition of fraction, parts of fractions and how fractions have been used in past and present. This lesson begins with a video example of how fractions could be used by Native Americans to keep track of time. Next, a presentation is used to give a definition of fraction, numerator and denominator. Both the presentation and the second video use one-half as an example of a fraction. Other videos and presentation in the lesson divide a whole into fourths. The entire lesson takes 30-40 minutes.

Lesson Plan

1. Video: An example of how our ancestors used fractions

How Native Americans used fractions 1:21

This video explains how a whole area, such as a lake, could be broken into equal parts and how that knowledge could be applied to tell time, thereby avoiding the danger of going home in the dark.

2. Presentation: Definitions of fractions, numerator and denominator

This presentation, with 25 slides, defines a fraction and each of its parts. One-half is used as an example of a fraction. You can access this presentation as Google Slides or PowerPoint. We estimate it takes about 7 minutes, with pauses for student input.

3. Video: Is one-half fair?

When something is divided into two equal parts, that is one-half 1:22

How many times have you heard kids insist something wasn’t fair? This video uses fractions and the concept of one-half to determine if two people are doing the their fair share of the work, getting their fair share of a pile of blankets.

4. Video: What is half

What is one half? 1:40


In this example of meeting between two camps, students will learn the definition of one-half and how to apply this knowledge to determine if the distribution of effort is fair. The video provides both examples of one-half – a whole divided into two equal parts – and non-examples, when a whole is divided into two unequal parts.

5. Presentation: Using fractions

This presentation, with 13 slides, gives an example of dividing a trail into four equal parts, fourths, or quarters. Zoongey Giniw sets his snares at four spots, equal distances apart on the trail. The presentation is available in PowerPoint or Google Slides. We estimate it takes about 5 minutes.

6. Video: Why Snare Rabbits?

Why Turtle Mountain has a Jackrabbit Road :58

Why is Zoongey Giniw snaring rabbits? As Turtle Mountain elder, Deb Gourneau explains in this video, when the Ojibwe people on the Turtle Mountain reservation did not have deer to eat and could not leave the reservation, they escaped starvation by snaring rabbits.

7. Game Play: Fish Lake

Students can play Fish Lake on Mac or Windows computers or iPad. Fish Lake covers fractions a long list of fractions standards. Recommended time: 15 minutes. Teachers in the Growing Math program receive licenses for Fish Lake for all of their students. If you need a license, please email info@7generationgames.com

8. Game Play: Forgotten Trail

Learn Fractions and statistics: Playable on Chromebook

If your students don’t have access to iPads, Mac or Windows computers and are using Chromebooks, they can play Forgotten Trail, which teaches this fraction standard, as well as standards for measurement and data. You can see the full list here. Recommended time: 15 minutes. Teachers in the Growing Math program receive licenses for Forgotten Trail for all of their students. If you need a license, please email info@7generationgames.com

9. Next lesson: Adding fractions with like denominators

Once you have introduced fractions, the next step we recommend is adding and comparing fractions with a common denominator.

Assessment

Assessment is built into the presentation as students are asked how they would write Long Foot’s portion of the buffalo as a fraction. There is a test of all of the fractions standards taught in Fish Lake here. It can be used as a pre- and post-test to show growth or at the end of a unit on fractions.

State Standards

Minnesota Math Standard 3.1.3.2 – Understand that the size of a fractional part is relative to the size of the whole.