CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.3.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

Summary

This English language arts and agriculture lesson consists of two short activities that teach students in Grades 3-4 about sheep using an online ebook and flashcards about domestic sheep. The lesson ends with a formative assessment writing activity consisting of either an informational writing prompt or an opinion one.

Time Required

30 minutes

Technology Required

Access to computer or tablet for remote learning. Printing out cards for your students is best for this lesson.

Lesson

Activity 1: Use flash cards to learn vocabulary

The sheep flash cards below can be used to pre-teach the vocabulary found in the All About Sheep book for 8-10 minutes.

Click the link to access the ebook on Book Creator: All About Sheep.

Students may read the book on their own or alternatively, listen to it.

This can take 5-10 minutes.

Assessment

Have students complete a writing prompt about what they learned after reading All About Sheep. This can take about 10-15 minutes. You can choose from the following writing activities.

Opinion Writing Prompts

My favorite part of being a shepherd would be…

If I had wool, I would make…

If I could feed a sheep a snack, I would feed it…

2. Informational Writing Prompts

Reflect: Why are sheep important to us? What resources do they give us?

Reflect: Why do sheep need a shepherd?

Synthesize (Going beyond the text.): Why might it be important to put colorful markings on a ewe and her lamb?

3. Book Review

Write a book review about All About Sheep. Have students tell other young readers what the book was about. Have students include their own evaluation or interpretation about All About Sheep.

10 Minutes These 10-minute lessons can be done as stand-alone activities at the beginning or end of a class to raise student engagement, or the three in this unit can be combined for a single 30-45 minute lesson.

Technology Required

Device with web-browser – Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer, phone or tablet

Summary

Ojibwe History Integrated with Math + History = Making Camp

That’s Making Camp in a nutshell, um, equation. If your students are like most people, you’re having a hard time getting them to focus. That’s why we’ve created short lessons for you. Each of these only takes about 10 minutes, teaches Ojibwe (Native American) history , multiplication or division. You can do these at the beginning or end of class as a warm-up, as an assignment for those students who finish early.

As the game introduction says …. let’s get started on Making Camp.

Lesson Plan

1. Download or follow the link to get started on Making Camp!

The game can be downloaded for any Apple or Android phone or tablet. It can also be played online. The links you need will be in the game pages for your device. You will have received the password to access this page in the training you attended. To access the games for your device, click the appropriate link below. These pages are password protected, but the password you received will work on all three pages.

If you have forgotten your password, email growingmath@7generationgames.com, let us know the name of your school and mention in the email you forgot your password.

2. Students will need a username and password

We strongly recommend you assign the username and password rather than having students assign their own.

Watch the two introductory videos that explain about the Ojibwe migration and how to play the game. This will bring you to the choice screen.

Click on the NUMBERS option which will bring up the screen below.

MATCHING MULTIPLICATION

Click on the top left box (with cards) to play a memory game, matching multiplication problems with their answers.

The Multiplication Dog

This lesson opens with a paragraph explaining that some tribes used dogs to haul heavy loads, using a type of sled called a travois. The player then has the opportunity to earn a dog and items for their dog by answering multiplication problems.

Minnesota Math Standard 3.2.2.2 – Use multiplication and division basic facts to represent a given problem situation using a number sentence. Use number sense and multiplication and division basic facts to find values for the unknowns that make the number sentences true.

Minnesota Math Standard 4.1.1.1 – Demonstrate fluency with multiplication and division facts.

Minnesota State Standard – History Sub-strand 4, Standard 15 “North America was populated by indigenous nations that had developed a wide range of social structures, political systems, and economic activities, and whose expansive trade networks extended across the continent.”

Time

10 Minutes

These 10-minute lessons can be done as stand-alone activities at the beginning or end of a class to raise student engagement, or the three in this unit can be combined for a single 30-45 minute lesson.

Technology Required

Device with web-browser – Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer, phone or tablet

Summary

Today we are focused on the Ojibwe history part of Making Camp. As one of our very favorite middle school history teachers said,

History is more than names and dates. It’s how people lived, the things they used.

– Jose Gonzalez, Social Studies Teacher, Gompers Middle School, Los Angeles

Students will watch two brief videos, one on building a wigwam and one on trading between tribes. They then trade in the points they have earned for items for their wigwam. Clicking on each item gives information on how that item was used by the Ojibwe. If you did the previous ten-minute lesson, your students already have points. If not, they’ll need to earn some by playing Making Camp mini-games (just click on anyone of the choices on the main screen).

Lesson Plan

1. Click on the wigwam icon to watch two videos

If you have been following along in order, the player now has enough points to get a wigwam and at least two items to supply their wigwam.

NOTE: If the player does not have at least 1 point to trade, the wigwam video will not play and instead, he/she will be told that at least one point is needed to trade for a wigwam.

If the player does not have at least 3 points to trade (1 for the wigwam, plus two more) after the wigwam building video, h/she will be told that at least two points are needed for trading.

The first time a player clicks on the wigwam icon the on the bottom left of the screen it will play a video on how a wigwam was built. This will be followed by a second video that briefly discusses that trading existed between and within tribes long before the settlers came. The player then has an option to trade points for items for the wigwam.

2. Click on the inside of the wigwam image in the bottom right corner to bring the player to the wigwam where items purchased can be moved to decorate or interact.

Clicking on an item will bring up a text box with information on how that item was used or obtained by the Ojibwe people.

Some items also perform actions when clicked. For example, the parfleche opens to show pemmican inside, the dog walks across the wigwam.

Well, if your children are like ours, they can get tired of learning on line, tired of being at home and difficult to motivate. When they get in those moods, we’ve found it helpful to break learning down into a series of smaller bites.

Sometimes your lesson plan ends sooner than expected and you have a few minutes to fill.

Standards

Minnesota History Substrand 2, Standard 3. Historical events have multiple causes and can lead to varied and unintended outcomes.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.A.4-Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers.

Device with web-browser – Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer, phone or tablet

Summary

Students learn about what foods the Ojibwe people ate and how their diet changed when they were forced on to the reservation. They play a multiplication tic-tac-toe to snare rabbits and spend the points earned in the game to outfit their wigwam.

Lesson Plan

1. Watch a one-minute video on rabbit stew

Narrated by Deb Gourneau, of Turtle Mountain, this video explains the importance of rabbit stew in helping people survive when food was scarce.

2. Play Rabbit Tic-Tac-Toe in Making Camp Premium

Remember, clicking on the link with the boxes in the bottom left corner will always take you to the choices page.

Click on the box with the rabbit to play a tic-tac-toe game in Making Camp. Each correct multiplication problem snares a rabbit. Incorrect problems leave an empty snare.

When you win this game, there will be an arrow to go back to the numbers page.

3. Play a Matching Game to earn more points

Click on the box with the buffalo to match multiplication problems with their answers.

4. Learn what else was part of the Ojibwe diet

Now that you have 4 more points, go back to the wigwam and if you have not already traded for these, select the fish, deer hide or parfleche to see what else the Ojibwe would eat. Click on each of these items in your wigwam to learn more about it.

Minnesota Math Standard 3.2.2.2 – Use multiplication and division basic facts to represent a given problem situation using a number sentence. Use number sense and multiplication and division basic facts to find values for the unknowns that make the number sentences true.

Minnesota Math Standard 4.1.1.1 – Demonstrate fluency with multiplication and division facts.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.D.8 Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.A.3 Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.

LESSON TIME

30 minutes without gameplay, 45 minutes with gameplay

SUMMARY

In this lesson plan, students will learn how to compute perimeter, apply those skills in game-based practice problems and solve perimeter problems using an interactive web-based activity with virtual manipulatives.

TECHNOLOGY REQUIRED

Device with web-browser (Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer); or iOS (iPhone/iPad) with access to Google apps.

Lesson Plan

1. Video: How to Find the Perimeter and Polygons

Watch this animated video that explains how to find the perimeter of different polygons, including rectangles, triangles and squares. (3:00)

2. INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITY WITH ASSESSMENT: Interactive perimeter problems activity

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.D.8 Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

In this lesson plan, students will learn about estimation as a problem solving strategy and practice rounding to the nearest 10 and 100. Including 0. The lesson will reinforce rounding up for numbers 5 and greater. Through gameplay and an interactive assessment activity that includes multi-step problem solving, students will practice rounding with an emphasis toward developing mastery.

TECHNOLOGY REQUIRED

Device with web-browser (Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer); or iOS (iPhone/iPad) with access to Google apps.

Lesson Plan

Watch the video– Problem Solving: Estimate (optional if playing Making Camp)

This animated movie explains how estimation and rounding can be used to solve problems that don’t require exact calculations, including multi-step word problems with an example. It also explains how rounding can be used to make numbers easier to work with and includes an example with rounding to the nearest hundreds. (3:44)

2. GAME: Making Camp Premium

Have students play Making Camp for 15-20 minutes, including this icon activity on estimation.

This activity will also reinforce visual estimation skills.

ASSESSMENT

A Day at the State Fair: Estimation is Everywhere

If your students have not previously used virtual manipulatives you may want to watch this short video.

You may elect to read and work through it during class time, giving students time to complete the problems or assign it as an individual assignment. Estimated time to complete: 10-15 minutes.

Minnesota Math Standard 5.1.1.4 – Solve real-world and mathematical problems requiring addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of multi-digit whole numbers. Use various strategies, including the inverse relationships between operations, the use of technology, and the context of the problem to assess the reasonableness of results.

Minnesota Math Standard 2.1.1.4 – Round numbers up to the nearest 10 and 100 and round numbers down to the nearest 10 and 100.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.D.8 Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.A.3 Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.

LESSON TIME

45 minutes

SUMMARY

In this lesson plan, students will learn how to compute perimeter of different polygons using multiplication and apply those skills in game-based practice problems. They will then learn about different Indigenous traditional dwellings. The lesson ends with students contributing to and solving problems that integrate the reading on dwellings and perimeter in an online assessment.

TECHNOLOGY REQUIRED

Device with web-browser (Chromebook, laptop or desktop computer); or iOS (iPhone/iPad) with Google Drive apps.

Lesson Plan

1. Play GAME: Making Camp Premium

For 15 minutes, have students play the game Making Camp Premium ,).

ALTERNATIVE: Perimeter is also covered in the second half of Spirit Lake: The Game, which is currently available for Windows and Mac computers.

2.READ: Home, Sweet Home: Tipis, Hogans, Wigwams and More

This activity draws from the “Home, Sweet Home” reading and lessons on perimeter to have students apply their understanding of how to compute the perimeter of rectangles, triangles and hexagons using multiplication. Get the Google slides presentation here. Students contribute numbers to create multiple problem options.

(Estimated time: 10 minutes)

ASSESSMENT

You can view your students’ progress on mastering these standards by viewing your teacher reports. Both Making Camp Premium and Spirit Lake Report links can be found on this reports page. You should have received a password during the Growing Math training. If you need the password, email growingmath@7generationgames.com from your school email account and we’ll get the password to you right away.

State Standards

Minnesota Math Standard 3.3.2.2 – Find the perimeter of a polygon by adding the lengths of the sides.

Minnesota Math Standard 4.3.2.4 – Find the areas of geometric figures and real-world objects that can be divided into rectangular shapes. Use square units to label area measurements.

CCSS Standard: Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.4.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

Time

40-45 minutes

Technology Required

Making Camp Premium plays in any browser, so, of course, on Chromebooks. It can also be downloaded on phones or tablets and played offline by students who have limited Internet access. Schools that are part of the Growing Math project or who have a 7 Generation Games site license have access to the game for students to use at home or school.

Summary

This is a fun lesson where students practice division, combined with Ojibwe history and then complete a creative writing assignment.

Lesson Plan

1. Game Play with Making Camp

Open Making Camp. Go to the main choices screen by clicking on the small green icon with boxes at the lower left of the screen.

Click NUMBERS.

Click the box with the numbers to practice division.

Students should play until they earn at least 15 points.

2. Spend the points earned and learn about Ojibwe history

One of the best teachers we know said, “History is more than names and dates. It’s how people lived. It’s the things they used.” When trading for a wigwam, students will watch videos on how to build a wigwam and on trading. They’ll learn that tribes traded with one another for hundreds of years.

3. Short story writing prompt

So how did we get from a refrigerator to a wigwam? You can use this Google slides presentation to tie in Native American history with Sam’s life in the twenty-first century. This presentation can also be added to your Google classroom as an assignment for students. Here is the introduction for Sam and his account:

This is Sam. He’s also Ojibwe but he’s not from a long time ago. He’s 16 years old. He lives on a reservation in the northern United States. You’ve probably heard of it. He doesn’t live in a wigwam. He lives in a white house with a grey roof. That’s the refrigerator in his house. The magnets have been there ever since he was in second grade.

4. Writing assignment

Read about Sam and write a story about him. What do you think happened to him in second grade? Why does everyone except for his cousin, Angie, think he’s not smart? Do you think he and Angie can really walk to Maine?

Assessment

Math problems in Making Camp Premium are scored automatically. You can see how many students attempted and the number correct in the data reports. All Growing Math teachers and all schools with 7 Generation Game licenses receive access to these reports. Writing assignments can be assessed according to the teacher’s own rubric.

State Standards

Minnesota Math Standard 4.1.1.6 – Use strategies and algorithms based on knowledge of place value, equality and properties of operations to divide multi-digit whole numbers by one- or two-digit numbers. Strategies may include mental strategies, partial quotients, the commutative, associative, and distributive properties and repeated subtraction.

Minnesota Math Standard 5.1.1.1 – Divide multi-digit numbers, using efficient and generalizable procedures, based on knowledge of place value, including standard algorithms. Recognize that quotients can be represented in a variety of ways, including a whole number with a remainder, a fraction or mixed number, or a decimal.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.NBT.B.5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.OA.A.3 Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operation … Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

Time

This lesson takes 40 minutes to an hour, depending on how long you allot your students to complete each of the 4 problem sets and whether you have students play the game.

Technology Required

Computer with a projector, Smartboard or other device for your class to watch videos or videos can be shared in Google meet or other application for remote learning. Spirit Lake: The Game can be downloaded and played on Windows or Mac computers. An iPad version will be available by Fall 2021. Schools that are part of the Growing Math project or who have a 7 Generation Games site license will have access to all of these games for students to use at home or school.

Optional Recommended Resource

Use resources like the Helping Math Multiplication Worksheet Generator to make your own worksheet. Their worksheets look very much like this one on multiplication of two-digit numbers with Easter egg examples, except with many more activities in each worksheet. Note that the link will require you to register for a free download. Registration takes about 1 minute. You’ll then receive a link to download over 100 free worksheets on math topics from addition to rational numbers. Another resource we like is the Lizard Point math worksheet generator. Both will print the worksheets as well as the answer key. Note that sites using PRINT TO Google Drive may have that feature disabled after December, 2020. However, you can still from the PRINT menu select SAVE AS PDF, download a file as PDF and then upload it to your Google Drive. The Growing Math project has no affiliation with Helping Math or Lizard Point.

Summary

You’ll need 20 math problems multiplying two-digit numbers. You can use math problems you already have or use one of the online worksheet generators. Based on research showing the effectiveness of distributed practice – that is, practicing a skill for more, shorter periods rather than one long session – we have students solve a few problems at a time, with videos in between. The lesson begins with a brief explanation of multiplying two digit numbers, followed by students solving 3-5 problems multiplying two-digit numbers. Students then watch a 3-minute video that works an example of multiplying a three-digit number by a two-digit number. They then solve 3-5 more problems, followed by another video, then more problems. We recommend giving a time frame – say, 7-10 minutes – to solve the problems rather than set number of problems because this allows you to begin and end each section of the lesson with all of the students at once.

Lesson Plan

1. Introduction to Multiplying Two-digit Numbers

Begin with an example from Helping with Math, that gives an explanation of multiplication and a variety of types of problems. Then, have the students try to solve 3 to 5 problems. You can use those included in the Google slides linked or create your own.

2. Video : Multiplication and Estimation

Estimation is one of the most practical math skills!

There are a lot of math concepts that I use regularly when writing software or computing statistics in my day job. The one skill I use all the time is estimation. (I can tell you that the ability to accurately estimate an answer is not universal.)

In the problem in the video above, we start out by multiplying 892 x 11, using the fact that any number multiplied by 10 is just that number with an added zero. To test our answer, we round 892 to 900 and can estimate that our answer should be near to – and less than – 9,900.

Let’s say you type the wrong number in your phone, hitting the 6 instead of the 9, since these two are pretty close and you have big fingers. Now your answer is 7,612. If you have a good grasp of estimation and multiplication, that is clearly wrong. If you’re computing how much money you need to charge a customer based on the 892 hours you expect to work at $11.00 per hour, you have just lost out on over $2,000!

3. More multiplication problems

Now that you have had a little practice and a little instruction, students solve another 3-5 problems.

4. Video : Multiplication and Estimation

This video works through a problem multiplying a 3 -digit number by a two-digit number . It also gives a strategy for solving difficult problems. That is, break the problem into smaller, easier problems.

Here, because the last digit of one number is 7 and of the other number is 2, you know that 7 x 2 = 14. So, whatever else your answer is, it has to end in a 4.

5. Follow up to the video

As a math teacher, I heard approximately 4,897,234 times from students:

WHY do I have to do so many problems of the same type?

– Almost every student I ever taught math

Explain to students that all of those facts learned, like 2 x 7 =1 4 are the basis for the commutative property of multiplication, reducing numbers to lowest terms, or solving equations by multiplying or dividing both sides by a constant, and more. You need a BASE to work from, problems that can be examples.

The fact is that the more experience you have with numbers, the more problems you solve. The more problems solved, the easier it gets.

6. Finish off by a few more math problems

Now that you’ve watched another video, it’s time for the last set of math problems.

7. Optional – Game Play

Students can Spirit Lake: The Game . Multiplying two- and three-digit numbers comes up in Level 4. We recommend allowing students to play for 15-30 minutes each session. This gives them enough time to get started but not enough time to get bored.

Assessment

Answers to the 12 -20 math problems completed by the student provide one assessment. A second assessment is in the reports for the Spirit Lake game, which show whether students answered correctly the problems in Level 4, whether they read the hint before answering the problem, and whether they were correct on the first try or had to attempt the problem more than once.

State Standards

Minnesota Math Standard 4.1.1.3 – Multiply multi-digit numbers, using efficient and generalizable procedures, based on knowledge of place value, including standard algorithms.

Minnesota Math Standard 5.1.1.4 – Solve real-world and mathematical problems requiring addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of multi-digit whole numbers. Use various strategies, including the inverse relationships between operations, the use of technology, and the context of the problem to assess the reasonableness of results.

45 – 50 minutes depending on the time you allot to students for measuring objects and for playing the game.

Technology Required

Making Camp Premium plays in any browser, so, of course, on Chromebooks. It can also be downloaded on phones or tablets and played offline by students who have limited Internet access. The teacher will need a computer, for showing to students learning from home, and a projector if showing videos in the classroom. If the classroom does not have access to a projector, the videos can be skipped. A phone or tablet with a measuring app is optional. If unavailable, students can use a ruler or tape measure instead. NOTE: The measure app comes on iPhone/ iPad by default but for an Android device you’ll need to install some type of measuring app.

Summary

Finding the perimeter activities can be fun in school or out. This is an activity recommended for children learning at home, so the instructions below target what you would send to parents, but this activity can be easily adapted for in-school use as well. Best of all, it combines math with P.E. ! Students watch a video, find the length and width of 10 objects and compute the perimeter. After the hands-on activity, students watch another video to reinforce the concept and then play the Making Camp Premium game to practice their multiplication and division.

Materials needed:

A piece of paper

A pen or pencil

A phone or tablet – if not available, a measuring device like a ruler, measuring tape or yardstick can be used instead.

Making Camp Premium (available online and for download on iOS and Android devices)

Lesson Plan

Step 1: Watch the perimeter video

As you might guess from the title, this video explains how to find the perimeter of an object and how to determine if a shape is a polygon.

Step 2. Make a table like in the example below

OBJECT

Length

Width

Top of a box

Seat of a chair

You can have a Google Doc you share with students with the table in the instructions. However, we recommend that students create their own table with a piece of paper because they are going to be wandering around the house or classroom and it is much easier to carry a piece of paper with you than a laptop.

For this exercise, every object should be a rectangle. Be prepared for the question,

“Is a square a rectangle?”

– every third-grader , ever

Yes. Yes it is. If you want to get technical about it, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four 90 degree angles. Or you could just say yes, a rectangle is a shape with four sides that are not slanted and a square definitely has four sides and is not slanted.

Step 3. Go measure 10 rectangles in the house

This is where the physical education comes in. Tell the student he or she has 10 minutes to complete the table with 10 items. An item can be as small as a box of candy or as big as the floor of a room. For each rectangle, write down the name of the object, the length and the width. Just put the whole number. If it says 18 1/4 or 18 1/2 just put 18. You may be tempted to tell the student to just round it but remember, he or she may not have learned fractions yet. That’s a lesson for another day.

If you don’t happen to have a ruler, yardstick or tape measure, your phone may already have a Measure app. This comes by default with an iPhone and if you don’t see it right away look in the Utilities folder. Most kids this age take any opportunity they can get to get hold of a parent’s phone. In school, you can use iPads or go old-timer and use a ruler.

To use it, point at a surface and click to select a point. Then, move the phone until you are at the end of what you want to measure.

Depending on how much exercise you want your child to get, the size of your house and how much peace you need (I won’t judge you), you may want to add a few rules like:

None of the objects can come from the room you are currently in.

They need to find rectangles in at least 3 different rooms

They need to find at least one rectangle in the backyard/ garage/ basement.

Once you have shown your child how to use the measure app and they have the table and a pencil, set the alarm on your phone and tell them to go. The alarm will go off when the 10 minutes are up.

Check their number of rectangles and if they are a few short give an extra 2- 5 minutes to find the rest.

Don’t have an iPhone or iPad?

The Ruler app can be downloaded free from Google Play and used to measure small objects. It only works to the size of your device but it is still easy to use and fun. There are apps in Google Play similar to the iPhone Measure app but these are not available on all Android phones.

Step 4 Watch another video on perimeter

Why? Because experience shows that students often don’t remember something if they only heard it once.

Step 5: Compute the perimeter for each object you have measured

OBJECT

Length

Width

Top of a box

8

4

Seat of a chai r

18

12

Your student does this, not you. You’ve already completed elementary school.

Tell students that these videos came from Making Camp Premium and now that they have finished the rest of the assignment they have 10 minutes to play.

State Standards

Minnesota Math Standard 2.3.1.1 – Describe, compare, and classify two- and three-dimensional figures according to number and shape of faces, and the number of sides, edges and vertices (corners).

Minnesota Math Standard 3.3.2.2 – Find the perimeter of a polygon by adding the lengths of the sides.